Oral Anti-diabetes Agents

Improved understanding of type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology has dramatically expanded treatment options. There are 3 major pathological processes involved in T2D:

Medications used to treat T2D alter these pathophysiological processes. Some medications stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin. All oral agents that stimulate increased insulin production can cause hypoglycemia. Other drugs decrease insulin resistance at the tissue level or interfere with glucose production and release from the liver. A separate class of oral anti-diabetes agents slows the intestinal absorption of carbohydrates.

Oral anti-diabetes drugs are most commonly used for patients who are obese, are more than 40 years old, and have stable T2D of less than 5 years duration. Oral anti-diabetes drugs are used as an adjunct to dietary and exercise management strategies to manage T2D. Oral anti-diabetes agents are not appropriate for patients with the following conditions:

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Oral anti-diabetes drugs can be used for both type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

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