Heart Failure - Introduction


"HF is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood (Yancy, et al.,2013 Yancy, et al.2017)."


Heart Failure (HF) is a significant public health problem affecting millions of patients in the United States. Risk factors for developing HF include age, race, overweight or obesity, diabetes, history of heart attack, familial cardiomyopathy and some congenital heart defects.

Lifestyle strategies to reduce the incidence of HF include teaching patients about the following:

Pharmacologic treatment

Hypertension and coronary heart disease are strongly associated with HF. Seeking medical treatment for hypertension and adherence to the medical treatment plan are key steps in HF prevention.

Anti-hypertension medications may include

Anti-hyperlipidemia (statins)

Interventional strategies to repair cardiac condition before failure develops


Yancy C.W., Mariell J., Biykem B., Javed B., Casey D.E., Drazner M.H., et al. (2013). 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 62 (16).

Yancy, C. W. et al. (2017). ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 136(6), 137-161. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000509

Cole, R.T., Kalogeropoulos, A.P., Georgiopoulou, V.V., Gheorghiade, M., Quyyumi, A., Yancy, C. et al. (2011). Hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate in heart failure: historical perspective, mechanisms, and future directions. Circulation,123,2414–2422.

Critchley, J. & Capewell, S. (2003). REVIEW Mortality Risk Reduction Associated With Smoking Cessation in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease A Systematic Review. JAMA, 290 (1). Accessed 01/13/2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12837716

Piña, I.L., Apstein, C.S., Balady, G.J., Belardinell, R., Chaitman, B.R. & Duscha, B.D., et al. (2003). Exercise and Heart Failure A Statement From the American Heart Association Committee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention. Circulation, 107 (8). Accessed 10/6/2016 http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/107/8/1210.short

Preiss, D., Campbell, R., Murray, H. et al. (2015). The effect of statin therapy on heart failure events: a collaborative meta-analysis of unpublished data from major randomized trials. European Heart Journal 36 (24), 1536-1546.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Service. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. What is Heart Failure. Accessed 10/13/2016

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