Introduction to Psychological
constructs and cardiovascular disease

In addition to the physiological changes that occur to patients with cardiovascular disease due to genetics, poor health habits, and/or aging, psychological constructs have been found to influence the development and progression of cardiovascular disease and ultimately heart failure. Several research studies have been carried out describing psychological constructs and their negative and positive impact on heart disease. The psychological constructs of depression, anxiety, optimism, and feelings of positive well-being are so far the most impactful (Carney & Freedland, 2017; Carney and Freedland, 2009..