References: Leeches


  1. Seigworth, G.R. (2002). A brief history of bloodletting. PBS.
    Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/basics/bloodlettinghistory.html
  2. Bloodletting. (2002, January 31). UCLA Louise M Darling Biomedical Library. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/biomed/his/blood/
  3. Medical leeches. (1816). The Hartford Times: The Olden Times.
    Retrieved July 17, 2006, from http://theoldentimes.com/chastbull40ct-2.html
  4. Leech therapy. (2005). BioTherapeutics Education & Research Foundation. Retrieved July 17, 2006, http://www.bterfoundation.org/index.htm
  5. Lancaster, B. (2005). Useful little bleeders. The Naked Scientist. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/Columnists/barrielancastercolumn1.htm
  6. Silverstein, K. (2002). Hirudo medicinalis. Animal Diversity Web.
    Retrieved July 17, 2006http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hirudo_medicinalis.html
  7. Marchione, M. (2002, January 2). Blood-sucking machine may put leeches out of work. National Geographic News. Retrieved July 17, 2006, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/12/1219_wireleeches.html
  8. Leech information. [Undated]. Biopharm Leeches. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.biopharm-leeches.com/.
  9. Biology Daily. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.biologydaily.com/biology/Leech
  10. Rados, C. (2004, September-October). Beyond bloodletting: FDA gives leeches a medical makeover. FDA Consumer Magazine: U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
    Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2004/504_leech.html

  11. Bapat, R.D., Acharya, B.S., Juvekar, S., & Dahanukar, S.A. (1998, June). Leech therapy for complicated varicose veins. Indian Journal of Medical Research 107:281-4.
  12. Govedich, F.R. & Bain, B.A. (2005). All about leeches. Center for Invertebrate Biology. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.invertebrate.us/leech/index.htm
  13. Leeches keep skin transplants alive. (2004, August 14). New Scientist 2460:16.
  14. Dixon, M. (2003, July 22). Leeches in PICU? Pediatric Nursing 29 (3): 216-18
  15. Michalsen, A., Klotz, S., Ludtke, R., Moebus, S., et al. (2003). Effectiveness of leech therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: A randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 139 (9): 724-730. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/139/9/I-22
  16. Granzow, J.W. et al. Simple technique enables medicinal leech control. (2004). Medical Devices & Technology Week: 320.
  17. Leech therapy can save previously unsalvageable tissue transplants. (2004). Medical Devices & Technology Week: 192.
  18. Leech therapy may be useful in penile replantation. (2004). Health & Medicine Week: 1075.
  19. El-Awady, A. Maggots & leeches make a comeback. Science in Africa. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2003/july/leech.htm
  20. Leslie, M. (1999, Spring) Stanford Medicine 16 (3). Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://mednews.stanford.edu/stanmed/1999spring/leeches.htm
  21. Clark, N.M, Femino, J.E., & Chenoweth, C.E. (2001). Aeromonas infection after medicinal leech therapy: case reports and review of the literature. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice 10 (4): 211-218.
  22. Graf, J. (2000). Symbiosis of Aeromonas & Hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech. ASM News 66 (3): 147-154, Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://newsarchive.asm.org/mar00/feature3.asp
  23. Leeches in modern medicine. (2002). Sound Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.soundmedicine.iu.edu/archive/2002/mystery/leeches.html
  24. Leeches back to relieve pain. (2004). News-Medical.Net. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.news-medical.net/?id=450
  25. Connor, N.P., Conforti, M.L., Heisey, D.M., et al. (2002). Mechanical leech. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 39 (4):505-512.
  26. Hirudotherapy. (2004). International Biotherapy Society. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://biotherapy.md.huji.ac.il/index.htm
  27. Leeches: Index. [Undated]. Leeches, USA, Ltd. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.leechesusa.com/leechesusa
  28. Sawyer, R.T. [Undated]. Leech biology and behavior: Endosymbiosis in the leech. Biopharm Leeches. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.biopharm-leeches.com/info_endosymbiosis.htm
  29. Salikhov, I.G., Lapshinal, D.I, Mukhina, R.G., et al. (2002). Effect of leeches therapy in periarticular symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Arthritis Support.com . Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.arthritissupport.com/library/showarticle.cfm/ID/407/T/Arthritis
  30. Pilcher, H. (2004). Recent studies are pointing the way for new uses of an ancient treatment-leeches. News@nature.com. Retrieved July 17, 2006http://www.nature.com/news/2004/041101/pf/432010a_pf.html
  31. deChalain, T.M. (1996). Exploring the use of the medicinal leech: a clinical risk-benefit analysis. Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery 12 (3):165-72.
  32. Leeches. (2004). Victorian Poisons Information Centre.Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.rch.org.au/poisons/stings.cfm?doc_id=3693
  33. Efficacy Supplement Meeting Package: Refludan@ (lepirudin) (2000), NDA 20-807. Retrieved July 17, 2006http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/00/backgrd/3612b2f.pdf
  34. Conforti, M.L., D.V.M., et al. (2002) Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of the Medicinal Leech (Hirudo medicinalis) for the Treatment of Venous Congestion. Experimental. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 109(1):228-235
  35. Douglas B. Chepeha, MD, MSPH., et al. (2002) Leech Therapy for Patients With Surgically Unsalvageable Venous Obstruction After Revascularized Free Tissue Transfer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128:960-965.
  36. Kouri RK, et al. (1998) A prospective study of microvascular free-flap surgery and outcome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Sep;102(3):711-21.


References: Maggots


  1. Maggots History of Maggot therapy. (2005). LarvE: Biosurgical Research Unit. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.larve.com/maggot_manual/docs/history.html
  2. Wenger, Jennifer. (2004). Are maggots making a medical comeback. The NIH Record LVI (15). Retrieved July 17, 2006http://www.nih.gov/nihrecord/07_20_2004/main.htm
  3. Maggot therapy. (2004). International Biotherapy Society. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://biotherapy.md.huji.ac.il/news.htm
  4. Clinical Policy Bulletins #0556, Medical Leech Therapy (2005). Aetna Inc. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.aetna.com/cpb/data/CPBA0556.html
  5. McAllister, Rallie. [Undated]. Maggots find new role in medicine.
    GoTriCities Wellness. Retrieved July 17, 2006http://www.gotricities.com/wellness/article.dna?idNumber=050221110937
  6. Nixon, B.P. (2003). Back to the future: maggot therapy; Podiatry Management. VOL 22; PART 5, pages 111-114
  7. Greer, K.A. (2005). In the spotlight: Age-old therapy gets new approval. Advances in Skin & Wound Care 18 (1): 12, 15.
  8. Pharm, S.T.B. ,Jones, M., Shutler, S, Jones, S. (2001). Maggots in wound debridement-an introduction. Surgical Materials Testing Laboratory: Wound Management Practice Resource Centre. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.smtl.co.uk/WMPRC/Maggots/maggots.html
  9. Sherman, R.A. (2005). Maggot Therapy Project. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.ucihs.uci.edu/com/pathology/sherman/home_pg.htm
  10. Handwerk, Brian. (2003). Medical maggots treat as they eat. National Geographic News. Retrieved July 17, 2006http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/10/1024_031024_maggotmedicine.html
  11. Maggots. [2001].Worsley School Online. Retrieved July 17, 2006http://www.geocities.com/thesciencefiles/maggot/info.html
  12. Maggot debridement therapy. (1998). The Department of Entomology, University of Sydney & Westmead Hospital, Australia. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://medent.usyd.edu.au/projects/maggott.htm#obtain
  13. Sherman, R.A., & Shimoda, K.J. (2004). Presurgical maggot debridement of soft tissue wounds is associated with decreased rates of postoperative infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases 39 (7): 1067 (4).
  14. Sherman, R.A.(2003). Maggot therapy for treating diabetic foot ulcers unresponsive to conventional therapy. Diabetes Care 26 (2): 446 (6).
  15. Thornton, D. (2002). Case report: maggot therapy in an acute burn. World Wide Wounds. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.worldwidewounds.com/2002/august/Thornton/Larval-Therapy-Acute-Burn.html
  16. Summers, J.B., & Kaminski, J. (2003). Maggot debridement therapy for diabetic necrotic foot. American Family Physician 68 (12).
  17. Sherman, R. A. (1998). Maggot debridement in modern medicine. Infections in Medicine 15 (9): 651-656.
  18. Goddard, J. (1998). All blow fillies are not alike. Infections in Medicine 15 (9): 656.
  19. Ruff, D., & Stephens, M. [Undated]. Case Study: Maggot therapy in the management of the diabetic foot. LarvE: Biosurgical Research Unit. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.larve.com/support_papers/case_studies
  20. LarvE FAQ. (2005). LarvE: Biosurgical Research Unit. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.larve.com/faq/
  21. Sherman, R.A. et al. [Undated]. Draft Policies & Procedures Template for Maggot Debridement Therapy (MDT). Irvine: The BioTherapeutics, Education, & Research Foundation.
  22. Sherman, R.A .(2005, January 13). Maggot Therapy. Maggot Therapy Project. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.ucihs.uci.edu/com/pathology/sherman/cases.htm
  23. Bonn, Dorothy. (2000). Maggot therapy: an alternative for wound infection. Lancet 356: 1174.
  24. Sherman, R. A. (2004). Medical Maggots™ [package insert] Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.monarchlabs.com
  25. Maggot Therapy Project - Incident Report - Monarch Labs. Retrieved July 17, 2006 http://www.monarchlabs.com/ae-report.pdf

 


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