- Kaposis Sarcoma
- According to Focus on Adolescent services (2005) Amyl
and butyl nitrites have been associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most
common cancer reported among AIDS patients. Early studies of KS showed
that many people with KS had used volatile nitrites. Researchers are
continuing to explore the hypothesis of nitrites as a factor contributing to
the development of KS in HIV-infected.
- Inhalant Induced Persisting
Dementia - In order for this type of dementia to be diagnosed, there must
be evidence from the history, physical exam or laboratory findings that the
deficits are etiologically related to the persisting effects of inhalants.
This disorder is termed "persisting" because the dementia persists
long after the individual has experienced the effects of inhalant intoxication
and withdrawal (APA, 2000).
- Burns - The highly
flammable nature of inhalants leads to burns. Inhalants cause impaired judgment.
Youths have received burns from lighting a cigarette while inhaling, or, in
rural settings, throwing a used inhalant container in a bonfire.
- Developmental harm
to fetuses - Abuse of inhalants during pregnancy may place infants and
children at increased risk of developmental harm.
- In 2003 Anderson
and Loomis reported that fetal solvent syndrome manifests as low birth
weight, small head size, facial dysmorphology, and muscle abnormalities similar
to those occurring in fetal alcohol syndrome.
- Jones and Balster
(1998) reported 100 cases of children born to solvent-abusing mothers.
Many of these children were small at birth, and some have craniofacial
abnormalities not unlike that seen in children with fetal alcohol syndrome.
studies in these children report some evidence of retardation in growth
and development and residual deficits in cognitive, speech, and motor
skills. There is also some
limited evidence of neonatal withdrawal from inhalants. It is recommended
that infants born to women who have recently used inhalants be observed
carefully for an alcohol-like withdrawal syndrome. Although it is not
possible to link a specific birth defect or developmental problem in the
child of an inhalant abuser to prenatal exposure to a specific chemical,
it is clear that inhalant abuse places children at increased risk. Animal
studies, designed to simulate human patterns of inhalant abuse, suggest
that prenatal exposure to toluene or trichlorethylene (TCE) can result
in reduced birth weights, occasional skeletal abnormalities, and delayed
neurobehavioral development (NIDA, 2003).
- A number of case
reports note abnormalities in newborns of mothers who chronically abuse
solvents. There is also evidence of subsequent developmental impairment
in some of these children. However, no well-controlled, prospective study
of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhalants in humans has been conducted,
and it is not possible to link prenatal exposure to a specific
chemical to a specific birth defect or developmental problem.
is only a diagnosis of old age.