Pre-exposure HIV Prophylaxis
The CDC reports a continuing need to raise awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) – a daily pill that can prevent HIV infection among those who are at substantial risk for HIV infection. They estimated 25 percent of sexually active gay and bisexual adult men and nearly 20 percent of people who inject drugs, should be counseled about PrEP.
The Food and Drug Administration approved PrEP for HIV prevention in 2012. When taken daily, it can reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV by more than 90 percent and by more than 70 percent among people who inject drugs. However, according to recent studies, some primary health care providers have never heard of PrEP.
Summary of the US Public Health Service PREEXPOSURE PROPHYLA XIS FOR THE PREVENTION OF HIV INFECTION IN THE UNI TED STATES - 2014 A CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE:
To reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection in adults:
- "Daily oral PrEP with the fixed dose combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), 300 mg and emtricitabine (FTC) 200 mg has been shown to be safe and effective in reducing the risk of sexual HIV acquisition in adults; therefore,
- PrEP is recommended as one prevention option for sexually - active adult MSM (men who have sex with men) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition
- PrEP is recommended as one prevention option for adult heterosexually active men and women who are at substantial risk of HIV acquisition.
- PrEP is recommended as one prevention option for adult injection drug users ( IDU ) at substantial risk of HIV acquisition.
- PrEP should be discussed with heterosexually active women and men whose partners are known to have HIV infection (i.e., HIV discordant couples) as one of several options to protect the uninfected partner during conception and pregnancy so that an informed decision can be made in awareness of what is known and unknown about benefits and risks of PrEP f or mother and fetus.
- Currently the data on the efficacy and safety of PrEP for adolescents are insufficient. Therefore, the risks and benefits of PrEP for adolescents should be weighed carefully in the context of local laws and regulations about autonomy in health care decision - making by minors.
- Acute and chronic HIV infection must be excluded by symptom history and HIV testing immediately before PrEP is prescribed.
- The only medication regimen approved by the Food and Drug Administration and recommended for PrEP with all the populations specified in this guideline is daily TDF 300 mg co-formulated with FTC 200 mg (Truvada).
- HIV infection should be assessed at least every 3 months while patients are taking PrEP so that those with incident infection do not continue taking it. The 2-drug regimen of TDF/FTC is inadequate therapy for established HIV infection, and its use may engender resistance to either or both drugs.
- Renal function should be assessed at baseline and monitored at least every 6 months while patients are taking PrEP so that those in whom renal failure is developing do not continue to take it.
- When PrEP is prescribed, clinicians should provide access, directly or by facilitated referral, to proven effective risk - reduction services. Because high medication adherence is critical to PrEP efficacy but was not uniformly achieved by trial participants, patients should be encouraged and enabled to use PrEP in combination with other effective prevention methods."•